Surface Mining Methods ILO Encyclopaedia

Conventional Methods of Surface Mining. Openpit mining and strip mining are the two major categories of surface mining which account for more than 90% worldwide surface mining production. The primary differences between these mining methods are the location of the ore body and the mode of mechanical extraction.

Australian mining | Australasian Mine Safety Journal

The two main methods of mining coal in Australia are: Opencut coal mining. Opencut (often called opencast outside Australia) mining usually occurs where the coal deposit is close to to the surface. The selection of the method used if often dependent on the economy of scale for removing the overburden material from the coal seam.

Basics of an open pit mine Mine

Open pit mines can be used in coal mining, and they are used extensively in "hard rock" mining for ores such as metal ores, copper, gold, iron, aluminum, and many minerals. In a open pit coal mine, the pit bottom would be the bottom mined coal seam elevation, since it is usually feasible to extract multiple seams when surface mining coal.

(PDF) Underground mining Methods ResearchGate

A coal mining method that accounts f or less than 1% of deep coal production, Shortwall involves the use of a continuous mining machine with mov eable roof supports, similar to longwall .

What are the main methods of mining? | American ...

Webpage describing different methods used for mining, processing, and transporting coal. Uranium: How is it Mined? (Webpage), New Mexico Bureau of Geology Mineral Resources Webpage describing the three main methods used to mine uranium: openpit, underground, and insitu leaching. What is Placer Gold Mining? (Webpage), National Park Service

Mining methods Mining | Ulan Coal

Open cut mining methods utilise a combination of dragline and truck and loader methods. Underground mining activities utilise longwall retreat and continuous mining methods. Underground mining is undertaken by traditional longwall mining methods. This method targets the highest quality coal by only removing the bottom 3 metres of the Ulan Seam ...

Estimation of fugitive emissions from open cut coal mining ...

A. Saghafi, Estimation of fugitive emissions from open cut coal mining and measurable gas content, 13th Coal Operators'' Conference, University of Wollongong, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Mine Managers Association of Australia, 2013, 306313.

Open Cut or Underground Mining Which is better? Bend ...

Oct 21, 2017· Overall when compared to other methods, opencut is much safer. Opencut mining is responsible for 65 percent of the raw coal production in New South Wales. Opencut is also a good method for gold and copper. Underground mining. Underground mining occurs underground through the creation of tunnels. These tunnels go deep into the mineral seam.

2012 Americas School of Mines

Open pit mining Mining Methods 5 Open pit mines are used to exploit low grade, shallow ore bodies. However, some pits are quite deep – about 1 km. The mining rate is greater than 20,000 tonnes per day (tpd) but is usually much greater. Some pits operate at a rate of more than 100,000 tpd

Open cut black coal mining: Empirical verification of PM2 ...

There is a paucity of empirical data relating to PM emissions from open cut coal mines. Availability of high quality emission data is fundamental to the completion of robust analyses of the potential future impacts of particulate emissions from open cut coal mining operations.

Openpit Mining, Opencast Mining, Opencut Mining, Strip ...

Openpit mining, also known as opencast mining, opencut mining, and strip mining, means a process of digging out rock or minerals from the earth by their elimination from an open pit or borrow. Toggle navigation Great Mining. ... Only partial coal removal is done by this method of mining. Most of the time it can be noticed that this kind of ...

Rehabilitation of Open Cut Mines Using Native ... ACARP

The goal of the proposed project was to produce a set of practical and cost effective methods and materials for incorporating native pasture species in the rehabilitation of open cut coal mine spoil in NSW. Conclusions Recommendations. Based on the results of this project the following summary and recommendations can be made:

A new mining method

A new mining method 04 Introduction The mining methods used in open cut coal strip mining in most major coal producing countries have been well established and fairly consistent over the past few decades. These general mining practices have been described by Kukla et al. (1993) and Aspinall et al. (1993) amongst others.

Openpit mining |

Surface mining, method of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are openpit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. See also mining and coal mining…


INTRODUCTION TO MINING MINING’S CONTRIBUTION TO CIVILIZATION ... that can be utilized as fuels,such as coal,petroleum,natural gas,coalbed ... If the excavation used for mining is entirely open or operated from the surface,it is termed asurfacemine.

CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology Princeton University

cial mining technologies to extract Federal coal reserves from deep underground seams. The chapter discusses: three surface mining techniques that are used in the West: 1) area strip, 2) open pit, and 3) terrace pit; two methods of underground mining in the West: 1) room and pillar with continuous miners, and 2) longwall mining;


may allow a decision to commence open cut mining to recover coal from subcrops, pillars, or to provide greater resource recovery. The timing of the decision to change between opencut and underground methods is influenced by a number of factors. As economic reserves reduce, continued production may only be possible by changing mining method.

Coal Mining Methods EMFI

Coal Mining Methods Underground Mining Longwall Room and Pillar Mining Longwall mining and roomandpillar mining are the two basic methods of mining coal underground, with roomandpillar being the traditional method in the United States. Both ... the newly cut face. The steel canopies of the

Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol. II Surface Mining Methods and Equipment J. Yamatomi and S. Okubo ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2. Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs.

Modern Coal Mining Methods Alison

This free diploma course will teach you aspects of earth science such as the earth''s processes, alternative energy, and the effects of climate change.

Valuing the environmental, cultural and social impacts of ...

Opencut coal mining projects can have a range of environmental, cultural and social impacts that, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, are required to be addressed as part of the environmental assessment (EA) process.

Transition from Open Cut to Underground Coal Mining AusIMM

Mining resource issues include geography, geotechnics, strip ratio, geology and the size of the deposit. Mining method issues include highwall mining, extending the life of an open cut, the environment, available roof support technology, product yields and the availability of appropriate workforces.

Basics of open pit mining YouTube

Jul 10, 2016· Informative presentation you came across to know about Open Pit mining. Open Pit mining MINING Methods Hydraulic Gassification Opencast mining Open cut Mining Surface or Strip Mining final pit ...

The Advantages of Open Pit Mining | Sciencing

Mar 13, 2018· Open pit mining does offer some advantages over traditional deep shaft mining. Pit mining is more cost effective than shaft mining because more ore can be extracted and more quickly. The working conditions are safer for the miners because there is no risk of cave in or toxic gas. Open pit mining is the preferred ...

Coal mining Wikipedia

When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut (also referred to as open cast, open pit, mountaintop removal or strip) mining methods. Open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited. This equipment can include the following: Draglines which ...

Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison

Methods of mining include stoping, caving, and various methods of working large deposits which, in addition to the method of actually breaking the ore, require elaborate and …

Dragline Digging Methods in Australian Strip Mines A …

evaluating the various digging methods currently in use by Australian open cut coal mines. Very limited information can be found describing innovative digging methods and most of them are internal and confidential mine reports. Most of the available literature describe basic dragline digging methods applied to the US coal fields.

Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia Open

Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia 5 2. Open cut mining methods strip mining Largescale open cut coal mining operations commenced in Australia in mid 1960s and since then there has been significan t developments in this method of mining. The mines are now operating at significantly higher annual tonnages, growing deeper, more complex and

Openpit mining Wikipedia

Jun 28, 2019· When the mineral seam becomes exposed, it is drilled, fractured and the mineral recovered for processing. Opencut mining can be more effective than underground methods, generally recovering 90% of a mineral deposit, and accounts for about 65% of raw coal production in NSW. Opencut mining is also used for some gold and copper production in NSW.

Underground Surface Coal Mines: Is Deep Drilling ...

Although both methods have their benefits and drawbacks, underground drilling may just be the cost worthy selection for you Mining for coal depends on many variables. The geology and environmental aspects play a vital role, but depth and quality of the seam is what brings home the bacon. Depending on where the seam (profitable bed of coal) is located, extracting this black gold can require a ...

Surface Coal Mining Methods in China

3. Coal surface mining methods The major types of surface mining methods [3,4] presently employed in China can be classified into: (1) Openpit mining; (2) Area Ty pe Mining; and (3) Contour Mining. Openpit mining [5,6] Open pit mining method was used broadly in Chinese surface coal …


Coal is mined by two main methods : Underground or ''deep'' mining Surface or ''opencut'' mining The choice of method is largely determined by the geology of the coal deposit, in particular the depth of the seam below the surface. The majority of the world''s coal reserves are recoverable by underground mining.

Coal mining Choosing a mining method |

Coal mining Choosing a mining method: The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings, surface mining and underground mining. Surface and underground coal mining are broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods, and the choice of which method to use in extracting a coal seam depends on many technological, economic, …